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"We are immensely proud and happy. After twelve years of pioneering development we stand stronger than ever, with increasing numbers of applicants to the programme, and we are eager to continue and expand our work, in collaboration with our regional and international partners, to establish a centre of excellence in Communication for Social Change and Development at Malmö University," said Oscar Hemer, Programme Coordinator.
Read more in this article
Communication for Development is an interdisciplinary field of study and practice, combining studies on culture, communication and development and integrating them with practical fieldwork. It explores the use of communication – both as a tool and as a way of articulating processes of social change – within the contexts of globalization.
In this programme, where the form of study strives to be conducive to the course content, progression lies in the group dynamic process as well as in the coursework itself. The multidisciplinary nature of the subject means that the same content should provide in-depth knowledge for students with different backgrounds. One major point of this pedagogical approach is to bring together different experiences. The group diversity should allow students to deepen their knowledge of their own major as well as gain a sufficient overview based on the academic backgrounds and practical experiences of other students. This will allow them to be able to work both interdisciplinary and transculturally in their future professions.
What is the relationship between development communication and the emerging, influential nexus of communication for social change, and where does social communication fit in?
Regardless of what one calls it, communication and media strategies have been utilized in development cooperation for well over sixty years. From an early emphasis on mass media in agricultural extension work, communication for development has grown to encompass a wide array of approaches and methodologies, and has gradually increased in stature to become a key driver of contemporary debates in development. Initially, communication interventions were largely oriented around the use of mass media, and existed within a principally modernizing, top-down and technocratic paradigm. Among other complex forces at play, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) debates in the 70s and 80s and the rise of critical and alternative approaches to development stretched the definition of the field. In addition to mass media, practitioners began to evaluate the need for richer interpersonal communication approaches that highlight the importance of power and culture in the success of development initiatives.
Some of the most significant changes to global development cooperation have come about as a result of this critical field of study. As a discipline, Communication for Development embraces a broad range of functions and practices which centre around dialogue, participation and the sharing of knowledge and information, all with a view to creating empowerment and sustainable social change. Development communication is no longer an emerging discipline but one which has established itself as an integral part of development planning. Labelled part science, part craft and part art, its multidisciplinary nature draws on aspects of anthropology, sociology, psychology and the behavioural sciences, and its implementation depends on flexibility, creativity and an understanding of communication processes. An awareness of the role media and communication have to play in development cooperation and diversity management have transformed the way development is perceived, mapped and implemented, and the field has pioneered some of the most ground-breaking improvements in global development undertakings. As the recent surge in new communications technologies demonstrates, it is not the tools themselves that make good communication, but rather a rich and theoretically informed understanding of the political, social and cultural contexts in which media and communications interventions occur.
Despite the fact that every year vast amounts of money are donated to developing countries, the chasm between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ continues to widen as billions of people around the world continue to live without running water, sanitation, adequate nutrition or access to basic education.
While the poor and the marginalised have always been at the centre of development, they have been the subjects rather than the objects of communication as traditional development practices overlooked a fundamental truism: that the poor, themselves, are often the best experts on their needs. Marginalised communities, historically denied access to communication tools and channels, have traditionally been passive bystanders to their so-called development as top-down, one-sided mass communication programmes delivered information without taking into account the very important specificities of context – the cultural norms and beliefs, knowledge and folklore of target populations, and how these impact the uptake of information and the potential for social change. Due to this lack of participation by target communities, most development programmes failed to achieve their goals, and a dramatic shift in paradigm was necessary to improve the efficacy and sustainability of development cooperation methods.
This shift towards participatory social processes, rooted in the customs and traditions of communities themselves, is the most fundamental premise of communication for development. Participatory processes aim to utilise cultural specificity as a tool rather than an obstacle, starting at ‘grass-roots’ level and developing methods that are grounded in, and take local and indigenous knowledge seriously. These processes comprise an interchange of knowledge and information, empowering individuals to make choices for themselves, and place communication at the forefront of the planning process while at the same time feedback and consultative processes ensure that communication is on-going and efficacy is maximised. Through the creation of ‘bottom-up’ processes, individuals become fundamental initiates in development schemes, a factor which is strongly linked to their long-term sustainability.
As the divide between the ‘connected’, developed world and developing countries grows, so does the need for new, innovative methods for addressing global inequality increase, and Communication for Development is the field devoted to the study and implementation of these processes. The power of media and the potential of Information Communication Technology (ICT) to educate and to address global crises such as the spread of HIV have led to exciting and creative innovations in development cooperation, and this dynamic field continues to grow and develop. As globalisation and the development of ICTs change world markets and pose an increasing threat to developing countries and their more vulnerable communities, practitioners schooled in contemporary mass communication theories and concepts have become a vital part of development across the globe.
Despite the wider acceptance of community-driven and participatory approaches to development by large multilateral and bilateral development agencies, the field continues to struggle for institutionalization, and to be granted sufficient resources by managers and funding agencies.
Paradoxically, the role of media and communication in development cooperation has seen a strange turn after the first World Congress on Communication for Development, held in Rome in 2006 and organized by FAO, the World Bank and the Communication Initiative, in partnership with a broad strand of important organisations in the field. The summit in Rome managed to mobilize almost a thousand participants from research and practice, government and non-government. It was supposed to mark the definite break-through of the science and practice of ComDev. Instead, what happened had more the character of an implosion of the ComDev field., which only recently is gaining a new momentum . Today, we are however actually seeing a long series of new institutional initiatives, in the world of ComDev, both in practice and university curricular development. At university level, new MAs in ComDev have developed in places like Albania, South Africa, Kenya, Spain, Paraguay, the UK and Colombia – all within the last three years. The field is finally becoming more significantly institutionalized in the world of academia, although it is still grappling with finding its identity between media and communication studies on one side, and cultural studies, political science and not least development studies on some of the other sides. The interdisciplinarity embedded in ComDev, combined with the outlined processes of globalization, mediatization and the proliferation of bottom-up agency are all contributing to put ComDev at a cross-roads.
While the handful of other programmes around the world have served as regional, and to some extent, international catalysts for the development of the field and continue to train competent practitioners, in 2000 Malmö University was the first to pioneer the use of an Internet-based distance-learning platform to make the education available to students globally. With its mix of online collaboration and discussion, paired with Webcast seminars held in Sweden (and occasionally at other places, such as Bosnia, South Africa and India), the ComDev course continues to this day to stand alone as the only graduate programme accessible to students unable to relocate for the purpose of education.
Since the entire course can be conducted over the internet (including the seminars) students from all corners of the globe can participate, work in their own time and attain this specialised education. Taking advantage of the latest developments in ICT, what makes ComDev extremely innovative is its use of the Live Lecture function in its seminars where students, equipped with microphones and webcams, are able to participate in lectures and discussions online, resulting in a ‘virtual classroom’ scenario. This way, students in New Zealand and South Africa can communicate and work on projects with classmates in Fiji and India, sharing ideas, gathering input and working together towards the common goal of improving development practices.
As a relatively new degree, students embarking on this specialised programme have the advantage of being schooled in the latest theories and philosophies, while being given the opportunity to apply these theories and concepts to real-life projects and problems in human development through individual assignments and group projects. Geared as it is towards individuals working in the fields of journalism, media and development, ComDev fosters teamwork and facilitates the exchange of knowledge and perspectives between participants.
The final project, required of all students, has always been an important element of the course, and this remains unchanged in the new programme. Over the past 10 years, students of ComDev have had the opportunity to apply what they have learned theoretically to a broad range of contexts and scenarios in the process of completing their projects, and field-work has been conducted in India, South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, Croatia and Sarajevo, to name but a few. During their project work, students have the opportunity to explore a particular research area or topic of concern at a deeper level, and the accompanying written dissertation provides a fantastic opportunity to consolidate and further the knowledge and skills gained in the course. This project work also demonstrates a solid foundation in research, which will aid those students who wish to continue into doctoral level studies. In choosing the topic for their projects, students are free to ‘think outside the box’, and employ innovativeness and creativity to their field-work endeavours, and project works have included documentaries, short films, photo essays, and a wide array of dissertations presented in interesting and original ways. Students are also encouraged to join forces and collaborate on projects, as teamwork is regarded as a vital part of effective development cooperation. For a list of all the Project Works (Degree Projects) to date, see the ComDev portal, under ‘History’.
Kerstin Gossé from Sweden was educated as a journalist, and worked as a news reporter for press and television before joining the Communication for Development Programme at Malmö University as assistant lecturer. Her experience with ComDev equipped her very well for her next position as a communications specialist at the United Nations Development Programme in Burkina Faso. Kerstin presently works with strategic communication for the City of Malmö in Sweden.
"ComDev was the perfect way to combine my skills in journalism and communication with international and development issues. The programme provided with me a more profound understanding of global development issues from social and cultural perspectives and gave me a more hands-on knowledge of how communication can be used as a tool to empower people to take responsibility for their own future and development.
The web-based learning platform was a great tool for collaboration, networking and exchange with fellow students all over the world, which was professionally enriching and personally very inspiring. The many social challenges placed under my department prove at Malmö Stad proves that communication for development and social change is just as relevant in the industrial world as the one we still call the developing one. Lots of things need to be improved, and communication plays a key role in the efforts to improve the lives of people living in the margins of the modern, multicultural welfare state of Sweden."
Jason Hallman of the USA worked with public arts management in California and in the education department of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum before being hired as a commissioning editor for an independent scholarly publishing company in the U.S. He’s been living in Johannesburg, South Africa, since 2009 where he consults with local and international NGOs on community media, knowledge management and participatory processes.
"In addition to allowing me to become conversant with sophisticated contemporary debates about the future of development, I also really appreciate my fieldwork experience.
For my final project I received a generous grant from the City of Malmö, which enabled me to work with participatory media and storytelling as means to better understand that struggles of social inclusion among marginalized youth in Sweden. I am continuing to explore how my ComDev education will inform my ‘real world’ practice, but in my brief time in South Africa I have been able to see the direct benefits of both my course work and my final project. Even though the course (now becoming a programme) was not entirely practical in nature, its emphasis on important debates around the theorization of culture, discourse, and development itself has given me a very useful orientation as I continue to explore."
The global demand for media and communication skills continues to increase as organisations such as UNICEF have made it a policy to hire ComDev practitioners, not only for international development schemes, but for diversity management and other forms of transcultural cooperation.
The UN Inter-Agency Round Table of Communication for Development has played a big role in institutionalising the field by bringing together UN agencies and international partners to discuss and debate the broad, challenging and essential role of Development Communication has to play in worldwide development cooperation. The 12th United Nations Inter-Agency Roundtable on Communication for Development had as its theme “Advancing the Rights of Adolescent Girls through Communication for Development” (http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=30863&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html). For example, UNICEF has recently revisited their C4D strategy and work, calling for a stronger linkage with the universities and building widespread capacity within their own global organization. UNESCO equally recognises the importance of communication, and has included it as part of its mandate and vision, integrating communication in its policies, budget and hiring policy, reflecting the growing need for skilled communication professionals.
As is evident from the alumni profiles provided in these pages, ComDev practitioners end up working in a truly diverse variety of settings. Some of the UN agencies placing hiring ads seek ‘communication for development’ practitioners by name. More commonly, though, practitioners are working in positions such as information or communications officer, where their roles may include a variety of tasks, not all of which would be strictly considered ComDev. Some practitioners are able to make a living as consultants working on projects with NGOs and CSOs, bilateral aid programs (such as Sida or DFID), or with the UN and World Bank. Since skills, knowledge and aptitudes gained through an education in ComDev are relevant to a variety of job functions within the development sector, you may also find alumni working in a range of allied positions, such as conflict resolution positions or as a learning and outcomes coordinator, to name but a few.
For students admitted autumn 2014
Visit the ComDev portal for more information about the programme, www.mah.se/comdev.
The School of Arts and Communication – also called K3 after its Swedish name “Konst, kultur och kommunikation” – is a multidisciplinary school engaged in media, culture and design. At K3 we combine traditional scholarship and academic knowledge with artistic methods and practical skills. In our teaching and research, art, technology, design and communication converge in new and innovative ways.
K3 offers education in fields as English, interaction design, media and communication studies, visual communication, graphic design, arts journalism, as well as a range of practical courses in different types of media production.
The education is provided by the Faculty of Culture and Society at the department School of Arts and Communication.