The aim of the course is for the student to acquire knowledge about victimology (the study of crime victims), as a field of study.

Admission requirements

1. Bachelor’s degree with a major in social- or behavioural science or medicine.
2. English B.


credits 100%


Syllabus for students autumn 2021, autumn 2020, autumn 2019, autumn 2018

Course Code:
KA714E revision 2
Level of specialisation
Main fields of study:
Date of ratification:
31 January 2018
Decision-making body:
Faculty of Health and Society
Enforcement date:
03 September 2018
Replaces Syllabus ratified:
23 May 2016

Entry requirements

1. Bachelor’s degree with a major in social- or behavioural science or medicine.
2. English B.

Specialisation and progression relative to the degree regulations

The course is given in the first term of the Master’s Program in Criminology and is a course within the main field of study that may be counted toward the Master’s Degree in Criminology. The course is also offered as an independent course.


The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to the discipline of victimology, an emerging area of specialization in the field of criminology and aims to develop the student’s knowledge of theories and methods applied within the field of victimology (the study of crime victims).


The course addresses victimology as a research area both internationally and in Sweden. Topics such as the history of victimology, theories of victimization, consequences of victimization, hate crime and fear of crime will be included in the course content. Central concepts and definitions are discussed as well as explanatory models of victimization and methods to study victimization with a special focus on particularly vulnerable groups. Characterization of different victim groups is discussed as well as ethical considerations when studying victimization.

Learning outcomes

Upon completion of the course, the student should be able to

1. apply concepts and explanatory models to the different knowledge fields of victimology,

2. explain the methods employed in research of victimization,

3. analyze the consequences of victimization, for the individual and society at large, and

4. evaluate the methodological challenges related to the study of particular victim groups and crime types.

Learning activities

The teaching takes the form of lectures and seminars based on the themes covered by the course. The student is expected to be acquainted with the course literature before each lecture. To achieve learning outcomes 1 - 4, the student shall take part in lectures where the theoretical, empirical, and methodological foundations, as well as the development of victimology, is presented and discussed. Furthermore, the student shall discuss and apply concepts and explanatory models of victimization as well as different research methods at course seminars. To achieve learning outcomes 3 and 4, the student shall also analyze the situation of vulnerable groups and evaluate the methodological challenges related to a victim group in individual written assignments. Seminars are mandatory.


Learning outcomes 1 and 2 are assessed based on individual written assignment. The focus in assessing the written assignments is on the students ability to apply concepts and explanatory models and to explain methods employed in victimological research. The assignment assessing learning outcomes 3 and 4 takes the form of an individual short essay. The main focus in assessing the short essay is on the students’ ability to apply relevant concepts and explanatory models and their ability to discuss methods of analysis and ethical considerations related to studying and analyzing the situation of vulnerable groups. A student who fails to achieve a passing grade in the course examination will be given the opportunity to revise and improve the assignments within a period specified in the schedule. An assignment can only be revised up to a passing grade. Students who do not submit a revised assignment within the specified time period receives the grade Fail and must submit a new assignment.

Assessment criteria will be provided upon the course introduction. In order to achieve the grade pass (E) the student must achieve the grade E on all assignments.

Right to re-examination
A student who fails to achieve a passing grade in the course examination will be given the opportunity to be re-examined twice according to same course content and with the same requirements. In addition, students also have the right to be examined on the same course the next time the course is offered according to the same regulations. Examination and re-examination take place at the times specified in the course guide.

Grading system

Excellent (A), Very Good (B), Good (C), Satisfactory (D), Pass (E) or Fail (U).

Course literature and other teaching materials

Amir M, (1968) Victim precipitated forcible rape. Journal of criminal law and criminology, 58 (4), 493-502.

Babbie E, (2004) Laud Humphreys and Research Ethics. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 24(3):12-19.

Chakraborty N, Garland J, (2015). Hate crime – impact, causes and responses. London ; Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. 208 pages.

Christie N, (1986) The ideal victim.In Fattah E A (ed.) From From Crime Policy to Victim Policy, p 17-30. Will be provided.

Daigle L H (2013) Victimology. The essentials. London ; Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. 343 pages.

European Institute for Gender Equality, (2014) Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union. 123 pages. Available

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, (2016) Ensuring justice for hate crime victims: professional perspectives. 67 pages. Available

Garland J, Hodkinson P, (2014) F**king Freak! What the Hell Do You Think You Look Like?’: Experiences of Targeted Victimization Among Goths and Developing Notions of Hate Crime. British journal of criminology, 54 (4): 613-631.

Groenhuijsen M, (2014) The development of international policy in relation to victims of crime. International Review of Victimology, 20: 31-48.

Liamputtong P, (2007). Researching the vulnerable. A guide to sensitive research methods. London: Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. 256 pages.

McConnell M, (2008) Fear of crime and victimization. In: Moriarty L J, (2008) Controversies in victimology (2nd edition). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing. Will be provided. 12 pages.

O´Connell M, (2008) Victimology: A Social Science in Waiting? International Review of Victimology, 15 (2): 91-104.

Perry B, (2003) Where do we go from here? Researching hate crime. Internet journal of criminology. Available,

Potter H, (2013) Intersectional Criminology: Interrogating Identity and Power in Criminological Research and Theory. Critical Criminology, 21(3), 305-318.

Shdaimah C S, Wiechelt SA, (2013) Crime and compassion: Women in prostitution at the intersection of criminality and victimization. International Review of Victimology, 19: 23-35.

Shapland J, Hall M, (2007) What do we know about the effects of crime on victims? International Review of Victimology,14: 175-217.

Tiby E, (2007) Constructions of Homophobic Hate Crimes; Definitions, Desicions, Data. In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 8: 114-137.

Van Dijk J, (2009) Free the Victim: A Critique of the Western Conception of Victimhood. International Review of Victimology May 16: 1-33.

Van Wijk, J, (2013) Who is the ‘little old lady’ of international crimes? Nils Christie’s concept of the ideal victim reinterpreted. International Review of Victimology, 19(2): 159–179.

Van Kasteren J, van Dijk J, Mayhew P, (2013) The International Crime Victims Surveys: A retrospective, International Review of Victimology. 20 (1) 49-69.

Additional articles from scientific journals and other teaching materials will also be included.

Course evaluation

The course coordinator/examiner is responsible for ensuring that a summary course evaluation is conducted at the end of the course. The coordinator will relay these results to the students at a prearranged time. Memory notes from the feedback, including proposals for changes to the course, will be documented and made available on the course website, and will also be relayed to the students who begin the course the next time it is given.

Interim rules

If a course is no longer offered or has undergone major changes, students will be offered two re-take sessions based on the syllabus in force at registration during a period of one year from the date of the implementation of the changes.

Course reports


The education is provided by the Faculty of Health and Society at the department Criminology.

Further information

Simon Wallengren, Course Coordinator
Phone: 040-6658370
Maria O Driscoll, Student Administrator
Phone: 040-6657968


11 November 2019 - 13 December 2019 Day-time 100% Malmö

Tuition fees

for non-EU students only

First instalment: 13000 SEK
Full tuition Fee: 13000 SEK

09 November 2020 - 11 December 2020 Day-time 100% Malmö

08 November 2021 - 10 December 2021 Day-time 100% Malmö